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Engineering Microorganisms for Enhanced CO2 Sequestration

Hu, Guipeng, Li, Yin, Ye, Chao, Liu, Liming, Chen, Xiulai
Trends in biotechnology 2019 v.37 no.5 pp. 532-547
biofuels, biotechnology, carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide fixation, carbon sequestration, carbon sinks, energy metabolism, engineering, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, heterotrophs, microorganisms, value-added products
Microbial CO2 sequestration not only provides a green and sustainable approach for ameliorating global warming but also simultaneously produces biofuels and chemicals. However, the efficiency of microbial CO2 fixation is still very low. In addition, concomitant microbial CO2 emission decreases the carbon yield of desired chemicals. To address these issues, strategies including engineering CO2-fixing pathways and energy-harvesting systems have been developed to improve the efficiency of CO2 fixation in autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms. Furthermore, metabolic pathways and energy metabolism can be rewired to reduce microbial CO2 emissions and increase the carbon yield of value-added products. This review highlights the potential of biotechnology to promote microbial CO2 sequestration and provides guidance for the broader use of microorganisms as attractive carbon sinks.