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Heat resistance of spores of 18 strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and impact of culturing conditions
- Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J., Janssen, Patrick W.M., Klaus, Verena, Yang, Chi, Zwietering, Marcel H., Den Besten, Heidy M.W.
- International journal of food microbiology 2019 v.291 pp. 161-172
- Geobacillus stearothermophilus, agar, calcium, data collection, food industry, foods, heat tolerance, heat treatment, ions, magnesium, manganese, meta-analysis, potassium, spores, sporulation, steam, strain differences, temperature, thermophilic bacteria, tryptones
- In this study, different methods were evaluated for enumeration of spores of G. stearothermophilus, different sporulation methods were assessed for yields and wet heat resistances of obtained spores, and subsequently, the variation in heat resistances of spores was determined. Overall, tryptone soya agar (TSA) was the most suitable medium for enumeration of spores of this thermophilic bacterium. Sporulation on different media both at 55 and at 61 °C led to considerable variation in spore heat resistance. The heat resistance of spores was highest upon sporulation on medium supplemented with free ions of calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese (CaKMgMn). For 18 different G. stearothermophilus strains that were isolated from various sources, spores were subsequently produced on nutrient agar supplemented with CaKMgMn at 55 °C. Strain ATCC 12980T, also known as 9A20, which is commonly used in steam sterilization tests was included. The survival of spores of all strains was assessed at 125 °C and 130 °C using two independent spore batches per strain. The mean D125°C for spores of the 18 strains was 1.1 min (95% PI 0.48–2.3 min) and the mean D130°C was 0.37 min (95% PI 0.17–0.82 min). For spore inactivation of these 18 strains, a z-value of 11.1 °C was estimated, resulting in an estimated D-value of 2.4 min (95% PI 1.1–5.2) at the reference temperature 121.1 °C. Based on the data sets obtained in this study, it was found that the variability in spore heat resistance could largely be attributed to strain variability and conditions used during sporulation (especially the sporulation medium); reproduction and experimental variabilities were much smaller. The established variabilities were compared with the overall variability in spore heat resistance of G. stearothermophilus based on a meta-analysis of reported D-values. The data presented indicate that strain variability and history of sporulation each account for approximately half of the overall variability observed with respect to the heat resistance of spores of G. stearothermophilus. The findings presented in this study allow for optimal recovery of G. stearothermophilus spores from foods and a better understanding of factors that determine the heat resistance properties of spores of G. stearothermophilus. Moreover, this study once more underlines the limited effects of heat treatments used in the food industry on inactivation of spores of this bacterium.