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Pharmacological Activities of Cilantroʼs Aliphatic Aldehydes against Leishmania donovani

Mateus A. Donega, Simone C. Mello, Rita M. Moraes, Surendra K. Jain, Babu L. Tekwani, Charles L. Cantrell
Planta medica 2014 v.80 no.18 pp. 1706-1711
Coriandrum sativum, Leishmania donovani, adverse effects, aldehydes, amastigotes, antiprotozoal agents, cilantro, cytotoxicity, essential oils, growth retardation, in vitro culture, infectious diseases, leaves, leishmaniasis, macrophages, medicinal properties, new drugs, patients, promastigotes, subtropics, tropics
Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC(50) of 26.58 ± 6.11 μg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 μg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 μg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 μg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal,and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC(50) values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 μg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 μg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 μg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal emonstrated IC(50) values of 5.65 ± 0.19 μg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 μg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages.