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Effects of rumen-protected folic acid and branched-chain volatile fatty acids supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites in dairy cows
- Wang, C., Liu, Q., Guo, G., Huo, W.J., Zhang, Y.L, Pei, C.X., Zhang, S.L
- Animal feed science and technology 2019 v.247 pp. 157-165
- Holstein, acetates, acetoacetic acid, acid detergent fiber, alpha-amylase, ammonium nitrogen, bacterial growth, beta-glucosidase, blood serum, body weight, crude protein, dairy cows, enzyme activity, fatty acid composition, feed conversion, folic acid, forage, free fatty acids, glucose, hormone secretion, insulin-like growth factor I, lactation, lactation number, lactose, milk, milk fat percentage, milk yield, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, pH, polygalacturonase, propionic acid, proteinases, rumen, rumen bacteria, rumen fermentation, somatotropin, total mixed rations, true protein, volatile fatty acids, xylanases
- This study evaluated the effects of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (BCVFA) and rumen protected folic acid (RPFA) supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites in dairy cows. Fifty-six multiparous Chinese Holstein cows (3.2 ± 1.1 of parity, 631 ± 16.4 kg of body weight [BW], 65 ± 2.6 days in milk [DIM] and 30.2 ± 2.1 kg of milk yield per day, mean ± SD) were blocked by lactation number, milk yield per day and DIM and were arranged into one of four groups in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Supplemental BCVFA (0 g/d [BCVFA-] or 80 g/d [BCVFA+]) and RPFA (0 mg/d [RPFA-] or 128 mg/d [RPFA+]) were hand-mixed into the top one-third of total mixed ration. Dietary concentrate to forage ratio was 50:50 based on a dry matter (DM) basis. Experimental periods comprised 105 days with 15 d of adaptation followed by 90 d of data collection. DM intake was increased with BCVFA supplementation, but was unaffected by RPFA. The BW changes were similar among treatments. Yields of milk, milk fat and lactose were increased, and milk true protein yield tended to increase with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation. Milk fat percentage was increased with BCVFA supplementation, but was unaffected by RPFA. Percentage of milk true protein was increased, lactose was unaltered and feed conversion ratio was decreased with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation. Ruminal pH and ammonia N concentration were decreased, but total volatile fatty acids concentration was increased with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate was increased and propionate was decreased, resulting in an increased ratio of acetate to propionate with BCVFA supplementation. Acetate and propionate molar proportion and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not affected by RPFA. Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were increased with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation. Similarly, activities of caboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease and abundance of R. albus, R. flavefaciens, F. succinogenes, B. fibrisolvens and P. ruminicola were increased. However, R. amylophilus abundance was not affected by BCVFA and increased with RPFA supplementation. Serum concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were unaltered and total protein was increased with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation. Serum acetoacetate (ACAC) and BHBA were increased by BCVFA, but were decreased by RPFA. Supplementation of BCVFA or RPFA increased serum growth hormone releasing hormone, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. These results indicated that lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and hormone secretion improved due to the stimulated ruminal bacteria growth and enzyme activity with BCVFA or RPFA supplementation, but no BCVFA × RPFA interaction was detected during the trial.