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Toll-like receptor 9 gene in Periodontal Disease – A promising biomarker

Gonçalves-Anjo, Nuno, Leite-Pinheiro, Fátima, Ribeiro, Ricardo, Requicha, João Filipe, Lourenço, Ana Luísa, Dias, Isabel, Viegas, Carlos, Bastos, Estela
Gene 2019 v.687 pp. 207-211
DNA, Toll-like receptor 9, animal models, bacteria, biomarkers, case-control studies, dogs, genes, genetic factors, humans, immune response, pathogens, periodontal diseases, polymerase chain reaction
Periodontal Disease is an infectious and inflammatory disorder triggered mainly by periodontopathogenic bacteria, however, as a multifactorial disease, several factors modulate its progression, namely, genetic factors. Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize molecular patterns present in pathogens and trigger an immune response against them. Thus, sequences variants in TLR genes seem to have the potential to modify the predisposition to Periodontal Disease and its progression. Based on this fact, TLR9 gene were analysed in a case-control study. DNA was obtained from 90 dogs (50 control and 40 cases) and a fragment of TLR9 gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The variants were identified by comparison with the dog wild type sequences. Our results suggest that rs375556098 and rs201959275 polymorphisms in the TLR9 gene are good candidates to become biomarkers of the canine predisposition to Periodontal Disease. It's important to notice that these polymorphic sites exist in Human exactly in the same codon. Since the dog is the best animal model to replicate the pathophysiological mechanisms of human Periodontal Disease, these results can potentially be extrapolated to humans.