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Role of cAMP modulator supplementations during oocyte in vitro maturation in domestic animals

Ramos Leal, Gabriela, Santos Monteiro, Clara Ana, Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves, de Paula Vasconcelos, Carlos Otávio, Garcia Nogueira, Luiz Altamiro, Reis Ferreira, Ana Maria, Varella Serapião, Raquel
Animal reproduction science 2018 v.199 pp. 1-14
adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP, domestic animals, embryogenesis, gonadotropins, mammals, meiosis, oocytes, ovarian follicles, reproduction, signal transduction
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important molecule in signal transduction within the cell, functioning as a second cell messenger of gonadotrophin stimulation. The concentration of cAMP in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) is known to be controlled through modulation of its synthesis by adenylyl cyclase (AC) and by degradation through the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. One of the main obstacles for in vitro embryo production is the optimization of reproduction processes that occur in oocyte maturation. The function of cAMP is important in maintaining meiotic arrest in mammalian oocytes. When the oocyte is physically removed from the antral follicle for in vitro maturation (IVM), intra-oocyte cAMP concentrations decrease and spontaneous meiotic resumption begins, due to the depletion of inhibitory factors from the follicle. In many studies, relatively greater cAMP concentrations before IVM has been reported to improve oocyte competence, leading to subsequent benefits in embryonic development in different species. There, therefore, has been an increase in oocyte cAMP concentrations with several treatments and different approaches, such as invasive AC, stimulators of AC activity, PDE inhibitors, and cAMP analogs. The aim of this review is to comprehensively evaluate and provide data related to (i) the use of cAMP modulators during IVM and the effects on completion of meiosis and cytoplasmic reorganization, which are required for development of oocytes with the capacity to contribute to fertilization and subsequent embryonic development; and (ii) the main cAMP modulators and the effects when used in oocyte IVM.