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Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell: Extracts inhibit Shewanella spp. growth and prevent fish spoilage

Wright, Mitchell Henry, Shalom, Joseph, Matthews, Ben, Greene, Anthony Carlson, Cock, Ian Edwin
Food microbiology 2019 v.78 pp. 114-122
Acanthopagrus, Artemia franciscana, Shewanella baltica, Shewanella frigidimarina, Shewanella putrefaciens, Terminalia latipes subsp. psilocarpa, bacterial growth, bioassays, ethyl acetate, fillets, fish, fruit extracts, growth inhibitors, leaf extracts, leaves, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitory concentration, plums, spoilage
Shewanella spp. are major causes of fish spoilage. Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) extracts were investigated for their ability to inhibit Shewanella spp. growth. Leaf and fruit extracts displayed potent growth inhibitory properties against all Shewanella spp. The methanolic leaf extract was a particularly potent inhibitor of S. putrefaciens (DD MIC 93; LD MIC 73 μg/mL), S. baltica (DD MIC 104 μg/mL; LD MIC 85 μg/mL), S. frigidimarina (DD MIC 466 μg/mL; LD MIC 391 μg/mL) and S. loihica (DD MIC 95 μg/mL; LD MIC 55 μg/mL) growth. The aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extracts were also potent growth inhibitors, with MIC values generally substantially <1000 μg/mL. Treatment of Acanthopagrus butcheri Munro fillets with methanolic Kakadu plum extracts significantly inhibited bacterial growth for 15 days at 4 °C. All Kakadu plum extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay. LC-MS analysis identified several compounds which may contribute to the inhibition of Shewanella spp. growth.