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Antibiofilm effect of chlorhexidine-carrier nanosystem based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and chitosan

Vieira, Ana Paula Miranda, Arias, Laís Salomão, de Souza Neto, Francisco Nunes, Kubo, Andressa Mayumi, Lima, Bruno Henrique Ramos, de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues, Pessan, Juliano Pelim, Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo, Monteiro, Douglas Roberto
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.174 pp. 224-231
Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, analysis of variance, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial properties, biochemical pathways, biofilm, biomass, chitosan, chlorhexidine, colloids, data analysis, iron oxides, magnetism, minimum inhibitory concentration, mixing, mouth diseases, nanoparticles, plankton, solubilization, therapeutics
This study synthesized and characterized a chlorhexidine (CHX)-carrier nanosystem based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) and chitosan (CS), and evaluated its antimicrobial effect on mono- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. CHX was directly solubilized in CS-coated IONPs and maintained under magnetic stirring for obtaining the IONPs-CS-CHX nanosystem. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for planktonic cells was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the nanosystem and controls. The effects of the IONPs-CS-CHX nanosystem on the formation of mono- and dual-species biofilms, as well as on pre-formed biofilms were assessed by quantification of total biomass, metabolic activity and colony-forming units. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis’ test or one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls’ or Holm-Sidak’s tests (α = 0.05), respectively. Physico-chemical results confirmed the formation of a nanosystem with a size smaller than 40 nm. The IONPs-CS-CHX nanosystem and free CHX showed similar MIC values for both species analyzed. In general, biofilm quantification assays revealed that the CHX nanosystem at 78 μg/mL promoted similar or superior antibiofilm effects compared to its counterpart at 39 μg/mL and free CHX at 78 μg/mL. These findings highlight the potential of CS-coated IONPs as preventive or therapeutic agents carrying CHX to fight biofilm-associated oral diseases.