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Interstitial lung diseases in dogs and cats part I: The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

Reinero, Carol
The veterinary journal 2019 v.243 pp. 48-54
cats, dog diseases, dogs, fibrosis, histopathology, humans, image analysis, inflammation, prognosis, respiratory tract diseases
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), also called diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, are a large heterogenous group of non-infectious, non-neoplastic disorders characterized by varied patterns of inflammation and fibrosis (Travis et al., 2002). In humans, accurate classification of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) requires multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. The same is likely to be true for canine and feline ILDs; however, this collaborative approach is rarely taken, leading to a paucity of knowledge of ILDs in small animal species. A proposed classification scheme of canine and feline ILDs, modified from a human classification scheme, consists of three major groups: idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), ILDs secondary to known causes, and miscellaneous ILDs (Travis et al., 2002). The focus of this review is on the IIPs in dogs and cats. A framework of what is known about the major IIPs in humans will be used to draw parallels when relevant to the canine and feline species. Differences will also be highlighted. When available from the veterinary literature, clinical presentation, diagnostic results, treatment and/or prognosis will be reported. The review underscores that to advance in our knowledge of veterinary IIPs and other ILDs, clinicopathologic features, advanced imaging and histopathology must be carefully integrated and larger groups of animals studied.