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F331H mutation and reduced mRNA in type-1 acetylcholinesterase is associated with carbofuran resistance development in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén)

Kwon, Deok Ho, Kim, Hyungbum, Jeong, In-Hong, Lee, Si Hyeock
Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology 2019 v.22 no.1 pp. 6-14
Laodelphax striatellus, acetylcholinesterase, amino acid substitution, carbofuran, diagnostic techniques, enzyme activity, gene dosage, gene frequency, inhibitory concentration 50, insecticide resistance, messenger RNA, nucleotide sequences, phenotype, point mutation, screening, selection pressure, topical application
Molecular diagnostic markers are necessary for establishing high-throughput screening systems to support insecticide-resistant population management. Here, we identified single amino acid substitution mutations related to carbamate resistance in Laodelphax striatellus Fallén type-1 acetylcholinesterase (LsAChE1) using carbofuran-selected strains. The phenotypic resistance profiles of the final selection strain (SEL9) compared to the susceptible strain revealed a 14-fold higher resistance ratio based on topical application, 1.2-fold higher general esterase activity, and 4.3-fold higher acetylcholinesterase insensitivity based on the 50% inhibitory concentration (I50), suggesting that insensitivity of the target site could occur as a resistance factor. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of Lsace1 of five strains (SUS, SEL0, SEL3, SEL6, and SEL9) revealed two amino acid substitutions (F330Y and F331H). To understand the roles of these mutations, we determined the allele frequency of both point mutations in the selected strains using quantitative sequencing methods. In addition, several quantitative genotypic traits (e.g., gene copy numbers and transcript levels of Lsace1, Lsace2, and LS.CarE1) were assessed. A correlation analysis of genotypic and phenotypic traits revealed strong correlations between resistance level and I50 with F331H allele frequency. Interestingly, the F331H mutation was negatively correlated with transcript levels of Lsace1, suggesting that selection pressure might result in a reduction of the target gene. Overall, the F331H mutation and reduced mRNA are important factors in the development of carbamate resistance. Furthermore, the point mutation can be used to monitor rapid carbofuran resistance in conjunction with molecular diagnostic methods such as quantitative sequencing.