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Real driving particle number (PN) emissions from China-6 compliant PFI and GDI hybrid electrical vehicles

Yang, Zhengjun, Ge, Yunshan, Thomas, Daisy, Wang, Xin, Su, Sheng, Li, Hu, He, Hongwen
Atmospheric environment 2019 v.199 pp. 70-79
atmospheric chemistry, catalysts, electric vehicles, emissions, emissions factor, gasoline
In this paper, the real driving particle number (PN) emissions from two China-6 compliant hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) were measured using a certification-level portable emission measurement system (PEMS) and strict adherence to the regulatory procedures for real driving emission (RDE) testing. The results show that the trip-averaged PN emission factors for the port fuel injection (PFI) HEV and the gasoline direct injection (GDI) HEV were 1.15E+12 and 1.71E+12#/km respectively, much higher than the engine-only counterparts and failing the existing RDE limits. Enriched air-fuel mixtures and probably lowered catalyst conversion efficiencies as a result of more frequent engine stop-and-goes of the HEVs are found to be the underlying reasons for the extra PN emissions. The test results also suggest the necessity to amend the power management strategy currently widely used in HEVs to deal with the PN issue.