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Fast and flexible strategy to produce electrochemical paper-based analytical devices using a craft cutter printer to create wax barrier and screen-printed electrodes

de Oliveira, Tássia Regina, Fonseca, Wilson Tiago, de Oliveira Setti, Grazielle, Faria, Ronaldo Censi
Talanta 2019 v.195 pp. 480-489
acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, caffeine, cutting, detection limit, electrochemistry, electrodes, hydrophobicity
This paper describes a simple, low-cost, and highly flexible rapid prototyping method to construct electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) for multiplexed analyte determinations. The ePAD was composed of two electrochemical cell (EC) compartments, separated by hydrophobic barriers of wax, and screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) deposited directly over the surface of the filter paper. The ePAD was entirely constructed using an inexpensive craft cutter printer with no needed of a wax printer. The rapid prototyping method involves two steps: the deposition of the SPEs and the creation of the wax barriers. In this case, the SPEs were screen-printed on filter paper by using adhesive tape as mask by cutting the electrodes pattern with the cutter printer. Following, the wax barriers were created using stamps made of filter paper also cut with the printer and impregnated with wax. In the ePAD, each ECs containing an array of 4-working electrodes, allowing up to 4 replicates in a single measurement. Both ECs shared one counter and one reference electrodes, permitting the simultaneous multianalysis. The ePAD was successfully applied to simultaneous detection of paracetamol (PAR), caffeine (CAF), and ascorbic acid (AA) in drugs. PAR and CAF were detected in a sample using one EC and AA was detected, in a different sample, on the other EC, both with no chemical modifications in the working electrodes. Limits of detection of 0.04 mmol L−1 for PAR, 0.22 mmol L−1 for CAF, and 0.40 mmol L−1 for AA were obtained. The construction process proposed provide an easy way to implement screen-printing electrodes and wax barriers in filter paper to create electrochemical devices for fast and simultaneous multianalysis.