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Evaluation in situ of genotoxic and cytotoxic response in the diploid/polyploid complex Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae) inhabiting agroecosystems

Pollo, Favio E., Grenat, Pablo R., Otero, Manuel A., Babini, Selene, Salas, Nancy E., Martino, Adolfo L.
Chemosphere 2019 v.216 pp. 306-312
Anura, adults, agroecosystems, breeding, cytotoxicity, diploidy, environmental factors, erythrocytes, gene duplication, genotoxicity, mitosis, mutagens, polyploidy, stress response, vertebrates, Argentina
Polyploidization has been documented across a wide range of vertebrates. Gene duplication could promote better adaptation to environmental changes and to chronic injury or stress. We investigated if genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to agricultural impact are affected by ploidy. We evaluate syntopic populations of the cryptic diploid/polyploid complex Odontophrynus cordobae/O. americanus breeding in an agroecosystem from Central Argentina. The blood of 72 adult anurans was analysed. We used erythrometry to distinguish Odontophrynus individuals with different ploidy levels. We calculated micronucleus frequencies (Mn) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) as genotoxic effects and enucleated, mitotic, pyknotic and immature erythrocytes as cytotoxic endpoints (CYT). Mn, ENAs and CYT frequencies were significantly different between diploid and polyploid organisms. The higher frequencies of Mn and CYT were recorded in polyploid organisms, and the higher frequency of ENAs was recorded in diploids. These results indicate that stress response, as indicated by most genotoxic and cytotoxic endpoints, was higher in polyploids respect to diploids. Polyploidy could provide greater genetic flexibility increasing buffering against exogenous DNA-damaging agents and thus confer an advantage over diploids under certain environmental conditions.