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Anammox granule as new inoculum for start-up of anaerobic sulfide oxidation (ASO) process and its reverse start-up
- Zhi-Jian Shi, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Dan Wu, Ya-Fei Cheng, Fu-Yue Zhang, Si-Mo Liao, Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Miao-Miao He, Ren-Cun Jin
- Chemosphere 2019 v.217 pp. 279-288
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, fluorescence, granules, inoculum, moieties, nitrates, nitrifying bacteria, nitrites, oxidation, ribosomal RNA, sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, wastewater
- The feasibility of implementing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules to start up high-loading anaerobic sulfide oxidation (ASO) in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated. An innovation method of the reverse start-up of anammox was also validated. Firstly, the reactor was operated to treat sulfide-rich wastewaters into which nitrite was introduced as an electron acceptor. An high-rate performance with sulfide and nitrate removal rates of 105.5 ± 0.11 kg S m−3 d−1 and 28.45 ± 3.40 kg N m−3 d−1, respectively, was accomplished. Sulfurovum were enriched with the increase of the substrate load and then conquered Candidatus Kuenenia to be the predominant bacteria. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy showed that the intensities of fluorescence decreased and protein-like substrates were the main components associated with the process of start-up. FT-IR analysis found that the main functional groups indicator were O-H groups. Secondly, the reverse start-up of anammox (achieving 90% TN removal) was achieved immediately when the substrate changed. 16S rRNA analysis indicated the successfully enrichment of anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia). These results suggest that anammox granules can act as inoculum of high-loading ASO process and the reverse start-up provides a new perspective for the fast initiation of anammox process.