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Assessment of the cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of extracts from the cyanobacterium Fischerella major Gomont

Batsalova, Tsvetelina, Basheva, Diyana, Bardarov, Krum, Bardarov, Ventzislav, Dzhambazov, Balik, Teneva, Ivanka
Chemosphere 2019 v.218 pp. 93-103
Fischerella, active ingredients, antibiotics, antifungal properties, antineoplastic activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cell culture, cell lines, cytotoxicity, environmental assessment, environmental impact, exposure duration, hormones, human health, immunosuppressive agents, in vitro studies, insecticides, microcystins, photosynthesis, repellents, risk assessment, saxitoxins, vitamins
Cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta) are ancient photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms with cosmopolitan distribution. They are producers of a number of biologically active substances with antitumor and antifungal activity, vitamins, antibiotics, algaecides, insecticides, repellents, hormones, immunosuppressants and toxins. So far, the cyanobacterium Fischerella major Gomont has not been studied regarding its impact on the environment and human health. In this study, the cytotoxic, antioxidant and antitumor activities of four extracts prepared from Fischerella major were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the total phenolic content and the potential for production of cyanotoxins were also analyzed. The conducted GC/MS analysis identified 45 compounds with different chemical nature and biological activity. Presence of microcystins and saxitoxins was detected in all Fischerella major extracts. In vitro testing on cell cultures showed a significant concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on all cell lines (HeLa, SK-Hep-1 and FL) treated at three exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h) with four extracts. A selective antitumor effect was not observed. This is the first study demonstrating biological activity of extracts from Fischerella major, which makes it an interesting subject for further research, including environmental risk assessments (as producer of cyanotoxins) or as a potential source of pharmaceuticals.