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Choice of vehicle affects pyraclostrobin toxicity in mice

Tuttle, Alexander H., Salazar, Gabriela, Cooper, Ellen M., Stapleton, Heather M., Zylka, Mark J.
Chemosphere 2019 v.218 pp. 501-506
azoxystrobin, body weight changes, carboxymethylcellulose, corn oil, diarrhea, feeds, fluoxastrobin, foods, fungi, humans, hypothermia, mice, pyraclostrobin, safety factor, toxicity, toxicity testing, trifloxystrobin, ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase, vegetable oil
Pyraclostrobin is a strobilurin fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial complex III of fungal and mammalian cells. In toxicity studies that were used to estimate the safety factor, pyraclostrobin was added to animal feed or to aqueous vehicles. However, foods containing residues of pyraclostrobin and other strobilurin fungicides (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, fluoxastrobin) are frequently prepared in vegetable oil prior to human consumption. The primary objective of this study was to determine if pyraclostrobin dissolved in an oil-based vehicle had adverse health outcomes in mice when compared to aqueous-based vehicles. We found that pyraclostrobin does not fully dissolve in aqueous methyl cellulose (MC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), two vehicles used in industry-sponsored toxicity studies, but does fully dissolve in corn oil. Moreover, C57BL/6 mice receiving pyraclostrobin in corn oil displayed adverse health outcomes, including loss of body weight, hypothermia and diarrhea at lower doses than when added to feed or to aqueous vehicles. Our data suggest that previous studies underestimated the true toxicity of pyraclostrobin in mammals. Additional toxicity tests using oil-based vehicles are recommended to verify current safety recommendations for strobilurin fungicides.