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Antifungal and anti-mycotoxin efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium chlamydosporum and Penicillium chrysogenum at non-cytotoxic doses

Khalil, Neveen M., Abd El-Ghany, Mohamed N., Rodríguez-Couto, Susana
Chemosphere 2019 v.218 pp. 477-486
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Penicillium chrysogenum, aflatoxins, antifungal properties, cell free system, cell viability, culture filtrates, fungi, humans, ions, itraconazole, light scattering, melanocytes, minimum inhibitory concentration, moieties, nanosilver, ochratoxin A, silver, toxicity testing, transmission electron microscopy
The cell-free culture filtrate (CFF) of the fungi Fusarium chlamydosporum NG30 and Penicillium chrysogenum NG85 was tested to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesized AgNPs were further characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM revealed their spherical shape, homogeneity and a size range between 6 and 26 nm for F. chlamydosporum AgNPs (FAgNPs) and from 9 to 17.5 nm for P. chrysogenum AgNPs (PAgNPs). DLS showed that the diameter of FAgNPs was narrower than that of PAgNPs. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the functional groups present in the CFF might be responsible for the reduction of silver ions to form stabilized protein-capped AgNPs. In addition, the AgNPs showed notable antifungal activity and potency in thwarting mycotoxin production. Thus, using Aspergillus flavus as a test microorganism the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 48, 45 and 50 μg/mL for FAgNPs, PAgNPs and the antifungal compound itraconazole, respectively. Also, when testing Aspergillus ochraceus FAgNPs, PAgNPs and itraconazole led to MIC values of 51, 47 and 49 μg/mL, respectively. The statistical MIC values to inhibit completely the total aflatoxin production by A. flavus were 5.9 and 5.6 μg/mL for FAgNPs and PAgNPs, respectively, and to inhibit the ochratoxin A production by A. ochraceus 6.3 and 6.1 μg/mL for FAgNPs and PAgNPs, respectively. The cytotoxicity assay of the AgNPs on human normal melanocytes (HFB 4) revealed a cell survival of 80% and 75% at a concentration of 6 μg/mL for FAgNPs and PAgNPs, respectively.