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Herbicide Paraquat provokes the stress responses of HPA axis of laboratory mouse, Mus musculus

Yadawa, Arun Kumar, Richa, Rashmi, Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.153 pp. 106-115
Mus musculus, blood serum, body weight, catalase, corticosterone, enzyme activity, gene expression, gene expression regulation, hypothalamus, males, messenger RNA, mice, neurodegenerative diseases, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, neuropeptides, paraquat, stress response, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, transcription factor NF-kappa B, translation (genetics)
Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide and well characterized pneumotoxicant which is also known to induce neurodegeneration in organisms. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PQ on hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal (HPA) axis. PQ was administered i.p.10 mg/kg body weight once a week for 5 weeks in laboratory male mice. Results indicate that SOD activity decreased while catalase activity and nitrate-nitrite level increased significantly in the hypothalamus of PQ treated mice. The expression of both AVP and CRH mRNA in the hypothalamus as well as ir-AVP and ir-CRH increased in the PVN of PQ treated mice compared to control. Immunoreactivity of nNOS and Hsp70 including NF-κB mRNA expression increased in the PVN of PQ treated mice. As expected, serum corticosterone level was also elevated significantly in the herbicide PQ treated mice. From these findings it is concluded that paraquat treatment is capable of activating the HPA axis via upregulating transcription and translation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides AVP and CRH as well as serum corticosterone level. Increase in both oxidative and nitrosative stress in PQ treated mice might be the driver which also contributed to the activation of HPA axis. It seems that stress induced reactive species (ROS, RNS) might be also responsible for the induced expression of NF-κB mRNA and Hsp70 protein which are considered as the reliable markers of certain types of stressors including PQ toxicity.