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Effects of s-metolachlor on early life stages of marbled crayfish

Velisek, Josef, Stara, Alzbeta, Zuskova, Eliska, Kubec, Jan, Buric, Milos, Kouba, Antonin
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.153 pp. 87-94
Procambarus, catalase, chronic exposure, crayfish, developmental stages, enzyme activity, epithelial cells, epithelium, glutathione, glutathione transferase, hepatopancreas, laboratory experimentation, metolachlor, mortality, ontogeny, risk, superoxide dismutase, walking, Czech Republic
The effects of s-metolachlor chronic exposure at concentrations of 1.1 μg/L (maximal real environmental concentration in the Czech Republic), 11 μg/L (environmental relevant concentration) and 110 μg/L on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. All s-metolachlor exposures resulted in higher mortality, delay ontogenetic development with accompanied slower growth and excited behaviour (increase of total distance moved and walking speed). Significantly lower superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activity and reduced glutathione level was observed at two higher tested concentrations (11 and 110 μg/L) of s-metolachlor compared with the control. S-metolachlor in concentrations 110 μg/L showed alteration of the tubular system of hepatopancreas including focal disintegration of tubular epithelium and notable reduction in epithelial cells number, especially B-cells. In conclusion, potential risk associated with using of s-metolachlor in agriculture, due to effects on non-target aquatic organisms as documented on early life stages of marbled crayfish in this study, should be taken into account.