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Characterization of propiconazole field-resistant isolates of Ustilaginoidea virens

Zhou, Yuxin, Yu, Junjie, Pan, Xiayan, Yu, Mina, Du, Yan, Qi, Zhongqiang, Zhang, Rongsheng, Song, Tianqiang, Yin, Xiaole, Liu, Yongfeng
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.153 pp. 144-151
Ustilaginoidea virens, biosynthesis, cell walls, cross resistance, demethylation, ergosterol, genes, mutation, mycelium, paddies, pathogenicity, plant pathogenic fungi, propiconazole, rice, rice false smut, sequence analysis, triazoles, China
The plant-pathogenic fungus Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takah causes rice false smut (RFS), which is responsible for significant quantitative and qualitative losses in rice industry. Propiconazole is a triazole fungicide which belongs to Demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). It is used to control RFS in China. We previously screened 158 isolates of U. virens collected in the fields in 2015 in Jiangsu province of China, and found two of them were highly resistant to propiconazole (named 82 and 88, respectively). In this study, we have analyzed the physiological and biochemical characters of six field-sensitive isolates and the two field-resistant isolates, including mycelial growth and cell wall integrity. We found there was cross-resistance between different DMIs fungicides, but was no cross-resistance between DMIs and QoIs fungicides. We also analyzed the fitness, and found the pathogenicity in 88 was stronger than the field-sensitive isolates, but was completely lost in 82. Sequence analyses of CYP51 and the 1000-bp upstream of CYP51 coding region showed no mutation in 82 compared to the field-sensitive strains, but two more bases CC were identified at 154-bp upstream of the coding region in the field-resistant isolate 88. Moreover, the expression of CYP51 gene in all tested isolates was significantly induced by propiconazole. However, the up-regulation expression level in both 82 and 88 was much higher than that in the field-sensitive isolates. We also found propiconazole could inhibit the ergosterol biosynthesis in the field-sensitive isolates, but stimulated it in both field-resistant isolates 82 and 88. Given the high level of U. virens developing propiconazole resistance and the good fitness of the field-resistant isolate 88, the resistance of U. virens to DMIs must be monitored and managed in rice fields.