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Benzimidazole- and QoI-resistance in Corynespora cassiicola populations from greenhouse-cultivated cucumber: An emerging problem in China

Duan, Yabing, Xin, Wenjing, Lu, Fei, Li, Tao, Li, Meixia, Wu, Jian, Wang, Jianxin, Zhou, Mingguo
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.153 pp. 95-105
Corynespora cassiicola, azoxystrobin, benomyl, benzimidazole, carbendazim, cross resistance, cucumbers, fluoxastrobin, foliar diseases, fungi, genotype, geographical distribution, leaf spot, median effective concentration, mutation, pyraclostrobin, quinones, resistance management, sequence analysis, thiabendazole, tubulin, China
Target leaf spot caused by Corynespora cassiicola is an economically important foliar disease on cucumber. In recent years, this disease has caused a serious problem on greenhouse-cultivated cucumber in China. In this study, to explore the characteristics and possible causes of heavy occurrence of the disease, we monitored the resistance of C. cassiicola strains from different provinces of China to benzimidazole and quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. The results from sequence comparison of target genes β-tubulin and Cytb of 619C. cassiicola strains indicate that resistance frequency to benzimidazoles and QoIs is up to 100%. Furtherly, molecular resistance mechanism of C. cassiicola to benzimidazoles and QoIs was analysed. One single mutation E198A and three double mutations E198A&M163I, E198A&F167Y and E198A&F200S were observed in target gene β-tubulin, which confers resistance to benzimidazoles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that double mutations of β-tubulin confer resistance to benzimidazoles in filamentous fungi. Compared with single mutation E198A, three double mutations significantly decreased sensitivity to benzimidazoles. Moreover, significant difference of sensitivity to benzimidazoles was observed among three double mutations. These mutation genotypes of β-tubulin have different geographical distribution and the mutation E198A&M163I is prevalent, occupying for 63.94%. In addition, strong cross resistance patterns between carbendazim, benomyl and thiabendazole were observed in C. cassiicola strains conferring different β-tubulin mutations. For QoI resistance, the only mutation G143A of Cytb was detected in tested 619C. cassiicola strains. Strong positive cross resistance was observed when comparing the EC50 values of sensitive and resistant strains of C. cassiicola for six intrinsically different QoIs such as azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, pyraclostrobin, fenaminstrobin, picoxystrobin and coumoxystrobin. Taken together, all the results not only provide novel insights into understanding resistance mechanism to benzimidazoles and QoIs in filamentous fungi, but also provide some important references for resistance management of target leaf spot on cucumber.