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Ecotoxicity and environmental fates of newly recognized contaminants-artificial sweeteners: A review
- Luo, Jingyang, Zhang, Qin, Cao, Miao, Wu, Lijuan, Cao, Jiashun, Fang, Fang, Li, Chao, Xue, Zhaoxia, Feng, Qian
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.653 pp. 1149-1160
- acesulfame potassium, biodegradation, ecotoxicology, metabolites, pollutants, saccharin, sucralose
- Artificial sweeteners (ASs) are used in countless application in daily life. ASs are newly recognized as pollutants due to their high detection frequency in various environmental media, which has aroused great concern. This review presents the current knowledge of AS ecotoxicity and possible elimination routes in the environment. The obtained results indicate that the negative impacts of ASs are more severe than previously expected. More attention should be paid to the chronic and metabolite toxicities of ASs. Moreover, numerous processes (physical, chemical and biological) have been reported to be able to degrade ASs. However, the elimination efficiency varies greatly depending on the specific AS and the particular experimental conditions. Cyclamate and saccharin are easily removed, while sucralose and acesulfame are generally persistent. Additionally, there is a large gap in the ASs removal efficiency between bench tests and full-scale studies. The potential for microbial degradation of persistent ASs was reported in some regions, but clarification of the underlying mechanisms is necessary to increase the likelihood of using this approach in wide applications with a satisfactory performance.