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The protective effects of melatonin on oxidative damage and the immune system of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) exposed to deltamethrin

Zhang, Cong, Zhang, Qian, Pang, Yangyang, Song, Xiaozhe, Zhou, Nan, Wang, Jiang, He, Long, Lv, Jiahuan, Song, Yameng, Cheng, Yongxu, Yang, Xiaozhen
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.653 pp. 1426-1434
Eriocheir sinensis, acid phosphatase, adenosine triphosphate, alanine transaminase, albumins, alkaline phosphatase, animal tissues, apoptosis, aquatic organisms, aspartate transaminase, birds, blood serum, deltamethrin, electron transport chain, enzyme activity, globulins, glutathione, hematologic tests, hemocyanin, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, immune system, malondialdehyde, mammals, melatonin, mitochondria, oxidative stress, permeability, phagocytosis, protective effect, reactive oxygen species, sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
Deltamethrin (Del), an important broad-spectrum insecticide, is widely used in agricultural activities. However, Del is an effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer that induces oxidative stress damage in cells or tissues. Del is significantly more toxic to aquatic organisms, especially crustaceans, than to mammals and birds. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin (MT) on the toxicity-induced damage of Del after 6 h in Eriocheir sinensis. The results showed that Del exposure significantly induced oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and mitochondria, with malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels being significantly increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity being significantly decreased. Moreover, Del exposure significantly induced functional damage of the hepatopancreas and mitochondria, with a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities in the hepatopancreas and the ratio of albumin/globulin (ALB/GLB) in serum, which indicated the permeability and integrity of the membranes were damaged and had caused cell damage. In addition, ATP content, Na+-K+-ATPase activity and cytochrome C (Cyt‑C) content in mitochondria decreased significantly, which indicated that Del exposure destroyed the normal respiratory chain of mitochondria. We also evaluated the hematological parameters. Although there were no significant differences in total hemocyte count (THC) levels, hemocyte apoptosis was significantly induced by Del exposure, and the hemocyte phagocytic activity and the hemocyanin levels decreased significantly with Del exposure. However, MT pretreatment not only prevented oxidative damage and functional damage caused by Del exposure to the hepatopancreas and mitochondria, but it also restored the hemocyte apoptotic rate and phagocytic activity to normal levels. In short, Del exposure caused significant oxidative and functional damage to the hepatopancreas, mitochondria and hemocytes of E. sinensis, whereas the use of MT almost completely eliminated the damage caused by Del exposure.