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Quick start-up and stable operation of a one-stage deammonification reactor with a low quantity of AOB and ANAMMOX biomass

Yang, Yifeng, Li, Yuan, Gu, Zaoli, Lu, Feng, Xia, Siqing, Hermanowicz, Slawomir
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.654 pp. 933-941
ammonium, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, biomass, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence in situ hybridization, gels, microelectrodes, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, pH
In this study, a quick start-up of one-stage deammonification in an immobilized aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anoxic ammonium oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria up-flow reactor (IAAR) was successfully achieved. With the aid of gel layers, AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria had excellent spatial distribution, theoretically meeting dissolved oxygen requirements for the simultaneous processes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing. The results indicated that an IAAR containing 0.4 g-VSS L−1 immobilized biomass achieved a nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 0.53 kg-N m−3 d−1 after only 10 days of operation and subsequently reached a maximum nitrogen removal rate (NRRmax) of 3.73 kg-N m−3 d−1. The micro-profiles of DO and pH were measured using microelectrodes to help understand the stratification of the microbial processes inside the gel layers. The distribution of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria within the gel layers was verified using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The community distribution in the FISH three-dimensional images closely corresponded to the micro-profiles of DO concentration and pH, enabling rapid adaptation and stable operation of the reactor seeded with a quite low quantity of biomass.