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Effects of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on interactions with cholesterol versus 7-ketocholesterol in Langmuir monolayers and their potential biological implications

Fidalgo Rodríguez, J.L., Dynarowicz-Latka, P., Miñones Conde, J.
Colloids and surfaces 2019 v.174 pp. 189-198
alpha-linolenic acid, atherosclerosis, blood flow, cholesterol, colloids, compressibility, geometry, lactalbumin, microscopy, omega-3 fatty acids, probability, stoichiometry
In this work the Langmuir monolayer technique was used to study interactions between cholesterol (chol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) with saturated (arachidic acid, AA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (ω-3 α-linolenic acid, α-LA,and ω-6 γ- linolenic, γ-LA) in order to get insight into their potential role in atherosclerosis. For this study, surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms, compressibility modulus (Cs−1) versus π plots, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images and excess functions (Aexc and ΔGexc) were analysed. Different behaviour has been observed. For cholesterol/AA mixed monolayers, components immiscibility occurs, whatever the surface pressure or the mixtures composition is, whereas for the 7-KC/AA mixed system, ideal behaviour was observed at low and high surface pressures for all the investigated compositions. However, the remaining mixed studied systems (sterol/PUFA) exhibit negative deviations from the ideality, although some differences do occurr. The magnitude of these deviations depend on the kind of a PUFA (for ω-3 PUFA greater than for ω-6) - attributed to the different geometry of their acyl chains- and the type of a sterol (for 7-KC greater than for cholesterol).The strength of attractive interactions followed the order: chol/ γ-LA <7-KC/γ-LA < chol/α-LA < 7-KC/ α-LA, postulating the formation of stable complexes of 1:2 stoichiometry for 7-KC/α-LA mixed monolayers and 1:1 stoichiometry for chol/α-LA mixed films. For 7-KC/γ-LA system, the formation of a low stability complex of 2:1 stoichiometry was suggested. The existence of these complexes can play an important role in diminishing the circulating sterols in the blood stream, thus decreasing the probability of atherosclerotic plaques formation.