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Liquid biopsy of circulating tumor DNA and biosensor applications

Li, Xuanying, Ye, Mengsha, Zhang, Weiying, Tan, Duo, Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole, Yang, Xu, Guo, Zhenzhong
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.126 pp. 596-607
biomarkers, biopsy, biosensors, blood, complementary DNA, genes, humans, liquids, neoplasms, prognosis
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a class of liquid biopsy is a type of gene fragment that contains tumor-specific gene changes in body fluids such as human peripheral blood. More and more evidences show that ctDNA is an excellent tumor biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, tumor heterogeneity and so on. ctDNA is a tumor code in the blood. Liquid biopsy of ctDNA is firstly summarized. Compared with the traditional detection technologies of ctDNA, the biosensor is an excellent choice for the detection of ctDNA because of its portability, sensitivity, specificity and ease of use. This review mainly evaluates various biosensors applied to the detection of ctDNA. We discuss the most commonly used bioreceptors to specifically identify and bind ctDNA, including complementary DNA (cDNA), peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and anti-5 MethylCytosines, and the biotransducers which convert biological signals to analysable signs. The review also discusses signal amplification strategies in biosensors to detect ctDNA.