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The behavior of umami components in thermally treated yeast extract

Alim, Aygul, Yang, Chao, Song, Huanlu, Liu, Ye, Zou, Tingting, Zhang, Yu, Zhang, Songpei
Food research international 2019 v.120 pp. 534-543
G-protein coupled receptors, bitterness, broths, electronic tongue, fractionation, peptides, taste sensitivity, temperature, umami, yeast extract
Umami proteolytics are natural food flavor alternatives to glutamate. In this study, key umami taste fractions were separated and purified from thermally treated yeast extract (YE) to yield fifteen umami peptides. Systematic approaches using sensory-guided fractionation on taste-active umami proteolytics separation and detection were utilized. A reaction temperature of 110 °C was optimum for umami peptide generation. Under this reaction temperature, the sensory score and E-tongue results of umami taste were the highest. The sensory evaluation-based taste dilution analysis and taste threshold determination supported the hypothesis that umami peptides have their physiological effect by binding to G-protein coupled receptors. The structural differences of umami peptides contribute to their taste profile and allow categorization into two group Types. Fifteen umami peptides were then categorized into Type I and Type II regarding the contractual-based taste mechanism: Type I peptides imparted complex tastes. The tastes of Type I peptides could split into two stages: bitterness and umami in pure water, whereas, Type II peptides presented strong umami taste at a high concentration in pure water, and the relationship between umami capacity and peptides concentration was linear. Finally, the guidance of the umami peptide usage in the flavor industry has been established according to broths dissolution test.