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The metal kiln with heat distribution pipes for high quality charcoal and wood vinegar production

Sangsuk, Supin, Suebsiri, Sirisak, Puakhom, Pongsakorn
Energy for sustainable development 2018 v.47 pp. 149-157
ash content, bamboos, carbon, charcoal, chimneys, fiberglass, fuelwood, heat, kilns, pipes, raw materials, steel, vinegars, water content
The metal kiln with heat distribution pipes is a new design of charcoal kiln for high quality charcoal and wood vinegar production. It was made of sheet steel. Its body was covered with fiberglass and galvanized steel as an insulator with the size of 1.5 m height and 2 m diameter. There were six exhaust chimneys connecting to a condenser unit for wood vinegar condensation. A raw material for testing efficiency of charcoal production was bamboo. The metal kiln contained about 1446 kg of bamboo with a moisture content of 30%. The process used 279 kg fire wood. It took 27 h for heating up to >600 °C, and cooled down naturally within 15 h. The products were 315 kg bamboo charcoal, 12 kg ash, and 900 L crude bamboo vinegar. There was no unburnt bamboo. In other words they were 24% good bamboo charcoal, 0% unburnt bamboo and 1% ash. Bamboo charcoal characterization followed the ASTM D7582-15 and ASTM D5865-10. Bamboo charcoal showed 8.5% moisture content, 7.7% volatile matters, 81% fixed carbon, 11.3% ash and 30,347 kJ kg−1 heat values.