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Effect of ethanol adaption on the inactivation of Acetobacter sp. by pulsed electric fields

Niu, Debao, Wang, Lang-Hong, Zeng, Xin-An, Wen, Qing-Hui, Brennan, Charles S., Tang, Zhong-Sheng, Wang, Man-Sheng
Innovative food science & emerging technologies 2019 v.52 pp. 25-33
Acetobacter, Raman spectroscopy, acetic acid, acetic acid bacteria, acidity, cell membranes, electric field, ethanol, fatty acid composition, fluorescence, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, lipids, membrane fluidity, pulsed electric fields, spoilage microorganisms, wine industry, winemaking, wines, yeasts
The effects of low concentrations of ethanol (3% to 9%, v/v) on cell membrane fatty acid composition, membrane lipid conformation, membrane fluidity and pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistance of Acetobacter sp. in the stationary phase were investigated. Results showed that the growth of Acetobacter sp. was inhibited, and analysis of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization indicated that membrane fluidity of Acetobacter sp. cells was significantly increased by modifying membrane fatty acid composition and membrane lipid conformation after exposure to ethanol. Moreover, results showed that cells cultivated in the medium with relatively high ethanol concentrations were more vulnerable to PEF. For example, the inactivation of Acetobacter sp. (109 CFU/mL) cultivated with 9% ethanol by PEF (20.0 kV/cm, 6.0 ms) could reach 5.17 log, significantly higher than those cultivated without ethanol (3.22 log). This was confirmed by morphological analysis, showing various changes on the cell surface after PEF treatment.Acetobacter sp. is one of spoilage microorganisms in winemaking, and it is able to convert the ethanol produced by yeasts into acetic acid and thereby increase volatile acidity in wine. In this study, the effect of ethanol as a growth substrate on PEF resistance in Acetobacter sp. cells was investigated. Results here reported will contribute to better understand the influencing mechanisms of ethanol on the inactivation of Acetobacter sp. cells by PEF treatment and further develop the application of PEF for inactivating acetic acid bacteria (AAB) in the wine industry.