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Occurrence and predictive utility of isochronal, equiproportional, and other types of development among arthropods

Quinn, Brady K.
Arthropod structure & development 2019 v.49 pp. 70-84
Arachnida, Copepoda, Decapoda, arthropods, eggs, insects, juveniles, larvae, rearing, temperature
In isochronal (ICD) and equiproportional development (EPD), the proportion of total immature (egg, larval, and/or juvenile) development spent in each stage (developmental proportion) does not vary among stages or temperatures, respectively. ICD and EPD have mainly been reported in copepods, and whether they occur in other arthropods is not known. If they did, then rearing studies could be simplified because the durations of later developmental stages could be predicted based on those of earlier ones. The goal of this study was to test whether different taxa have ICD, EPD, or an alternative development type in which stage-specific proportions depend on temperature, termed ‘variable proportional’ development (VPD), and also how well each development type allowed later-stage durations to be predicted from earlier ones. Data for 71 arthropods (arachnids, copepod and decapod crustaceans, and insects) were tested, and most (85.9%) species were concluded to have VPD, meaning that ICD and EPD do not occur generally. However, EPD predicted later-stage durations comparably well to VPD (within 19–23%), and thus may still be useful. Interestingly, some species showed a ‘mixed’ form of development, where some stages' developmental proportions varied with temperature while those of others did not, which should be further investigated.