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Changing pattern of prevalence and genetic diversity of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and bocavirus associated with childhood diarrhea in Asian Russia, 2009–2012
- Zhirakovskaia, Elena, Tikunov, Artem, Tymentsev, Alexander, Sokolov, Sergey, Sedelnikova, Daria, Tikunova, Nina
- Infection, genetics, and evolution 2019 v.67 pp. 167-182
- Bocavirus, Human astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, childhood, children, diarrhea, feces, genetic variation, genome, genotype, genotyping, monitoring, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, seasonal variation, viruses, Russia
- This hospital-based surveillance study was carried out in Novosibirsk, Asian Russia from September 2009 to December 2012. Stool samples from 5486 children with diarrhea and from 339 healthy controls were screened for rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and bocavirus by RT-PCR. At least one enteric virus was found in 2075 (37.8%) cases with diarrhea and 8 (2.4%) controls. In the diarrhea cases, rotavirus was the most commonly detected virus (24.9%), followed by norovirus (13.4%), astrovirus (2.8%) and bocavirus (1.1%). Mixed viral infections were identified in 4.3% cases. The prevalence of enteric viruses varied every season. Rotavirus infection was distributed in a typical seasonal pattern with a significant annual increase from November to May, while infections caused by other viruses showed no apparent seasonality. The most common rotavirus was G4P (56%), followed by G1P (20.1%), G3P (5.5%), G9P, G2P (each 1.3%), six unusual (1.2%), and five mixed strains (0.5%). Norovirus GII.3 (66.5%) was predominant, followed by GII.4 (27.3%), GII.6 (3.7%), GII.1 (1.6%), and four rare genotypes (totally, 0.9%). Re-infection with noroviruses of different genotypes was observed in four children. The classic human astrovirus belonged to HAstV-1 (82%), HAstV-5 (8%), HAstV-4 (4.7%), HAstV-3 (4%) and HAstV-2 (1.3%). Consecutive episodes of HAstV-1 and HAstV-4 infections were detected in one child with an 8-month interval. Bocavirus strains were genotyped as HBoV2 (56.5%), HBoV1 (38.7%), HBoV4 (3.2%) and HBoV3 (1.6%). In the controls, norovirus strains belonged to GII.4 (n = 4), GII.1, GII.3, and GII.6, and HBoV2 strain were detected. Most of the detected virus isolates were characterized by a partial sequencing of the genomes. The genotype distribution of most common enteric viruses found in the Asian part of Russia did not differ considerably from their distribution in European Russia in 2009–2012.