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Targeted urine metabolomics in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage

Sarafidis, K., Begou, O., Deda, O., Gika, H., Agakidis, C., Efstathiou, N., Theodoridis, G.
Journal of chromatography 2019 v.1104 pp. 240-248
amino acids, biomarkers, case-control studies, energy, gestational age, hemorrhage, hypoxanthine, liquid chromatography, metabolism, metabolites, metabolomics, morbidity, mortality, multivariate analysis, neonates, nicotinamide, premature birth, tandem mass spectrometry, urine
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying IVH and/or development of disease biomarkers is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate the urine metabolic profile of preterm neonates (gestational age < 32 weeks) IVH and explore the role of metabolomics in understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease from which novel biomarkers could be derived. In this single-center, prospective, case-control study, urine samples were collected from seven preterm infants with early IVH (IVH group) and from 11 preterm ones without IVH (control group) on days 1, 3 and 9 of life. Urine metabolites were evaluated using targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Demographic and perinatal-clinical characteristics were recorded. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis showed that the study groups differed significantly due to alternation in 20 out of the 40 metabolites detected in the urine. Elevated differentiated metabolites included energy intermediates and other important compounds, whereas reduced ones various amino acids, hypoxanthine and nicotinamide. A set of metabolites showed high performance as indicators of IVH, especially during day 1. As evidenced by metabolomics, preterm neonates with IVH demonstrate significant metabolism perturbations. Potentially, a selected panel of metabolites could be used as urine biomarkers of IVH development and/or progression in high-risk preterm infants.