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Phlenumdines D and E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Phlegmariurus nummulariifolius, and their regulatory effects on macrophage differentiation during tumor development
- Nakayama, Waka, Fujiwara, Yukio, Kosuge, Yasuhiro, Monthakantirat, Orawan, Fujikawa, Kazumi, Watthana, Santi, Kitanaka, Susumu, Makino, Toshiaki, Ishiuchi, Kan’ichiro
- Phytochemistry letters 2019 v.29 pp. 98-103
- Lycopodium alkaloids, humans, interleukin-10, macrophages, neoplasms, phenotype, spectral analysis
- Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, phlenumdines D (1) and E (2), have been isolated from the club moss Phlegmariurus nummulariifolius (Blume) Ching along with ten known compounds (3−12), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by chemical conversion and modified Mosher’s method, respectively. Phlenumdines E (2), A (8), hupermine A (12), and 12-epi-lycopodine-N-oxide (14) exhibited an inhibitory effect on interleukin 10 (IL-10)-induced expression of CD163, a M2 phenotype marker, in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs).