U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon in rice-based cropping systems: A review

Rajan Ghimire, Sushil Lamichhane, Bharat Sharma Acharya, Prakriti Bista, Upendra Man Sainju
Journal of integrative agriculture 2017 v.16 no.1 pp. 1-15
Oryza sativa, aerobic conditions, anaerobic conditions, animal manures, carbon sequestration, composts, conventional tillage, crop residues, cropping systems, crops, fertilizer rates, food security, greenhouse gas emissions, management systems, monitoring, nitrogen fertilizers, no-tillage, nutrient management, reduced tillage, rice, soil organic carbon, soil quality, sustainable agriculture, wheat, South Asia
Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management practices on SOC sequestration and identifies potential research gap, opportunities, and challenges in studying SOC dynamics in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based cropping systems in South Asia, mainly in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Improved management practices such as reduced- and no-tillage management, nitrogen (N) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) application, and crop residue addition can improve SOC accumulation. Positive effects of no-tillage, crop residue addition, N addition through manure or compost application, and integration of organic and chemical fertilizers on SOC accumulation in rice-based cropping systems have been documented from South Asia. However, limited data and enormous discrepancies in SOC measurements across the region exist as the greatest challenge in increasing SOC sequestration and improving agricultural sustainability. More research on SOC as influenced by alternative tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management systems, and development of SOC monitoring system for existing long-term experiments will advance our understanding of the SOC dynamics in rice-based cropping systems and improve agricultural system sustainability in South Asia.