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Oral polio vaccine response in the MAL-ED birth cohort study: Considerations for polio eradication strategies

Pan, William K., Seidman, Jessica C., Ali, Asad, Hoest, Christel, Mason, Carl, Mondal, Dinesh, Knobler, Stacey L., Bessong, Pascal
Vaccine 2019 v.37 no.2 pp. 352-365
Enterovirus C, assets, breast feeding, children, cohort studies, diarrhea, digestive system, education, enteropathogens, income, inflammation, microbial detection, models, neutralization, neutralizing antibodies, risk factors, seroconversion, serotypes, social environment, transferrin receptors, underweight, vaccination, vaccines
Immunization programs have leveraged decades of research to maximize oral polio vaccine (OPV) response. Moving toward global poliovirus eradication, the WHO recommended phased OPV-to-IPV replacement on schedules in 2012. Using the MAL-ED prospective birth cohort data, we evaluated the influence of early life exposures impacting OPV immunization by measuring OPV response for serotypes 1 and 3.Polio neutralizing antibody assays were conducted at 7 and 15 months of age for serotypes 1 and 3. Analyses were conducted on children receiving ≥3 OPV doses (n = 1449). History of vaccination, feeding patterns, physical growth, home environment, diarrhea, enteropathogen detection, and gut inflammation were examined as risk factors for non-response [Log2(titer) < 3] and Log2(titer) by serotype using multivariate regression.Serotype 1 seroconversion was significantly higher than serotype 3 (96.6% vs. 89.6%, 15 months). Model results indicate serotypes 1 and 3 failure was minimized following four and six OPV doses, respectively; however, enteropathogen detection and poor socioeconomic conditions attenuated response in both serotypes. At three months of age, bacterial detection in stool reduced serotype 1 and 3 Log2 titers by 0.34 (95% CI 0.14–0.54) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.29–0.77), respectively, and increased odds of serotype 3 failure by 3.0 (95% CI 1.6–5.8). Our socioeconomic index, consisting of Water, Assets, Maternal education, and Income (WAMI), was associated with a 0.79 (95% CI 0.15–1.43) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.34–2.12) higher serotype 1 and 3 Log2 titer, respectively, and a 0.04 (95% CI 0.002–0.40) lower odds of serotype 3 failure. Introduction of solids, transferrin receptor, and underweight were differentially associated with serotype response. Other factors, including diarrheal frequency and breastfeeding practices, were not associated with OPV response.Under real-world conditions, improved vaccination coverage and socio-environmental conditions, and reducing early life bacterial exposures are key to improving OPV response and should inform polio eradication strategies.