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Toxic effects of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and relation to accumulation in rat liver

Nygaard, Unni Cecilie, Vege, Åshild, Rognum, Torleiv, Grob, Koni, Cartier, Christel, Cravedi, Jean-Pierre, Alexander, Jan
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.123 pp. 431-442
alkanes, animal tissues, antigens, diet, females, granuloma, humans, immune response, liver, lymphocytes, mineral oil, molecular weight, rats, spleen, toxicity
Humans are daily exposed to mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from the diet. We exposed female Fischer 344 rats to a broad mixture and sub-fractions of MOSH. Chemical characterization of the MOSH mixture used and material accumulated in rat tissues were previously reported. Rats were exposed to feed containing 0–4000 mg/kg broad MOSH mixture for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days; and for 120 days to feed containing different MOSH fractions: i) mainly molecular masses < C25 (S-C25), ii) dewaxed, mainly molecular masses > C25 (L-C25) and iii) the L-C25 fraction mixed with wax largely consisting of n-alkanes > C25 (L-C25W). Treatments related effects were increased liver and spleen weight, as well as vacuolization and granuloma formation with lymphoid cell clusters in the liver, but effects varied strongly between the MOSH fractions tested. We conclude that increased liver and spleen weights were mainly related to accumulated iso-alkanes and substituted cycloalkanes, but also wax n-alkanes. Induction of liver granuloma appeared to be related to n-alkanes > C25 and not to the accumulated amount of MOSH. Immune responses to an injected antigen were not affected. MOSH fractions associated with increased liver and spleen weights were similar to those accumulating in humans.