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Safety assessment of EPA+DHA canola oil by fatty acid profile comparison to various edible oils and fat-containing foods and a 28-day repeated dose toxicity study in rats

Andre, Carl, Buesen, Roland, Riffle, Brandy, Wandelt, Christine, Sottosanto, Jordan B., Marxfeld, Heike, Strauss, Volker, van Ravenzwaay, Bennard, Lipscomb, Elizabeth A.
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.124 pp. 168-181
Mortierella alpina, adverse effects, canola, canola oil, cooking fats and oils, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fatty acid composition, females, histopathology, humans, laboratory animals, males, marine fish, menhaden oil, omega-3 fatty acids, principal component analysis, rats, safety assessment, salmon, toxicity
The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are recognized for their health-promoting qualities. Marine fish and fish oil currently provide the main sources of EPA and DHA for human consumption. An alternative plant-based source of EPA and DHA is provided by EPA + DHA canola event LBFLFK (LBFLFK). A comparative analysis and a 28-day toxicity study assessed the safety of LBFLFK refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil. Thirty-one different commercially-obtained fat and oil samples were tested, and principal component analysis showed that the overall fatty acid profile of LBFLFK RBD oil was most similar to Mortierella alpina oil and salmon flesh. Samples with the fewest differences in the presence or absence of individual fatty acids compared to LBFLFK RBD oil were menhaden oil and some other fish oils. In a 28-day toxicity study, LBFLFK RBD oil was administered by oral gavage to male and female Wistar rats. No signs of toxicity were evident and no adverse effects were noted in clinical observations, clinical pathology, or histopathology. Overall, these studies support the safety of LBFLFK RBD oil as a source of EPA and DHA for human consumption.