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Food fingerprints – A valuable tool to monitor food authenticity and safety

Medina, Sonia, Pereira, Jorge A., Silva, Pedro, Perestrelo, Rosa, Câmara, José S.
Food chemistry 2019 v.278 pp. 144-162
adulterated foods, biomarkers, food fraud, food safety, genetic variation, metabolites, product authenticity, production technology, provenance, public health, spoilage
In recent years, food frauds and adulterations have increased significantly. This practice is motivated by fast economical gains and has an enormous impact on public health, representing an important issue in food science. In this context, this review has been designed to be a useful guide of potential biomarkers of food authenticity and safety. In terms of food authenticity, we focused our attention on biomarkers reported to specify different botanical or geographical origins, genetic diversity or production systems, while at the food safety level, molecular evidences of food adulteration or spoilage will be highlighted. This report is the first to combine results from recent studies in a format that allows a ready overview of metabolites (<1200 Da) and potentially molecular routes to monitor food authentication and safety. This review has therefore the potential to unveil important aspects in food adulteration and safety, contributing to improve the current regulatory frameworks.