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Pottery from Orduña Village in the 17th–19th centuries: An archaeometrical approach
- Calparsoro, E., Arana, G., Iñañez, J.G.
- Journal of archaeological science: Reports 2019 v.23 pp. 304-323
- X-ray diffraction, archaeology, ceramics, coasts, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, kilns, scanning electron microscopy, trade agreements, villages, Iberian Peninsula
- The village of Orduña is located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula and has played throughout centuries as an important exchange point, connecting the Spanish plateau with the Basque coastline villages. Furthermore, several trade agreements converted the village into an important trade-center for goods from the 13th century CE onwards. Despite the historical importance of this village, little is known about the pottery activity and its diachronic evolution, which would have experimented a drastic change during the 18th century. Recently, first material relicts evidencing pottery production were found in archaeological excavations, where numerous ceramic sherds along with at least one ceramic kiln dated back to the 17th–19th century were unearthed. These findings constituted an unprecedented framework of reference and paradigm for the study of the ceramic materials from other plots of the villa as well as other Basque villages. In the present work, a selection of 100 sherds, which were representative of the different typologies found, have been subjected to a multi-analytical approach by ICP-MS, XRD and SEM-EDS in order to shed light on these ceramic materials and to obtain a better understanding on their historical implications in relation to regional and extra-regional trading activity. The results allowed establishing seven compositional groups that not only respond to the different technotypes, but they also depict the diachronic evolution of the ceramic production, showing compositional differences throughout time. In addition, characterization of the glazes was performed. Thus, the main technological features used by the potters of Orduña were identified.