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Overview and features of larval developmental sites of biting midges species associated with livestock in Israel with implications to their control
- Braverman, Y., Chizov-Ginzburg, A., Eldor, H., Mumcuoglu, K.Y.
- Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 2018 v.14 pp. 204-211
- Culicoides imicola, Culicoides obsoletus, bananas, breeds, feces, larvae, livestock, organic matter, stumps, Israel
- The larval developmental sites of Culicoides species were assessed from 1155 samples collected during the years 1969–2003. Culicoides circumscriptus was most prolific in mud with medium organic matter with proportional representation of 55.8%. Culicoides imicola breeds mainly in damp mixture of rotten, decomposed animal dung with or without some mud, with proportional representation of 97.2%. Culicoides obsoletus was found mostly in rotten banana stumps, with proportional representation of almost 100%. Culicoides puncticollis was found in mud with a medium amount of organic matter with proportional representation of 35.6%. Culicoides distinctipennis showed 22.2% proportional representation for mud poor in organic matter. Culicoides schultzei gr. was most prolifically in mud rich in organic matter with proportional representation of 6.2%. Culicoides cataneii was most prolifically in mud with a medium amount of organic matter with proportional representation of 1.8%. Maximum duration time to emergence from the larval developmental sites ranged from seven weeks in C. obsoletus to fourteen weeks in C. circumscriptus and nine weeks in C. imicola. All the studied species breed throughout the year. Significant innate differences in the proportions of the sexes were found in the emergence of six species.