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Surveillance of Arboviruses in Primates and Sloths in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

Catenacci, L. S., Ferreira, M., Martins, L. C., De Vleeschouwer, K. M., Cassano, C. R., Oliveira, L. C., Canale, G., Deem, S. L., Tello, J. S., Parker, P., Vasconcelos, P. F. C., Travassos da Rosa, E. S.
EcoHealth 2018 v.15 no.4 pp. 777-791
Alphavirus, Bradypus variegatus, Dengue virus, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Sapajus xanthosternos, animal pathogens, antibodies, arboviruses, blood serum, forests, hemagglutination inhibition test, hosts, humans, monitoring, neutralization tests, serological surveys, serotypes, sloths, wild animals, Brazil
From 2006 through 2014, we conducted seroepidemiological surveys on non-human primates and sloths to investigate the possible circulation of arboviruses in Bahia Atlantic Forest, Brazil. We collected a total of 196 samples from 103 Leontopithecus chrysomelas, 7 Sapajus xanthosternos, 22 Bradypus torquatus and 7 Bradypus variegatus. Serum samples were tested using neutralization test and hemagglutination inhibition test to detect total antibodies against 26 different arboviruses. The overall prevalence of arboviruses was 36.6% (51/139), with the genus Flavivirus having the highest prevalence (33.1%; 46/139), followed by Phlebovirus (5.0%; 7/139), Orthobunyavirus (4.3%; 6/139) and Alphavirus (0.7%; 1/139). Monotypic reactions suggest that the wild animals were exposed naturally to at least twelve arboviruses. Added results from the neutralization test, animals were exposed to thirteen arboviruses. Most of these viruses are maintained in transmission cycles independent of human hosts, although antibodies against dengue virus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were found in this study. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting exposure to arboviruses in L. chrysomelas, S. xanthosternos and B. torquatus. Our results also highlight that the Southern Bahia Atlantic Forest has a variety of vertebrate hosts and potential vectors, which may support the emergence or re-emergence of arboviruses, including those pathogenic to humans.