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The ameliorative effects of exogenously applied proline on physiological and biochemical parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop under copper stress condition
- Noreen, Sibgha, Akhter, Muhammad Salim, Yaamin, Tayyaba, Arfan, Muhammad
- Journal of plant interactions 2018 v.13 no.1 pp. 221-230
- Triticum aestivum, biomass production, calcium, carbon dioxide, catalase, chlorophyll, copper, crops, developing countries, electron transfer, enzyme activity, foliar spraying, gas exchange, growth and development, heavy metals, industrial effluents, irrigation, magnesium, mixing, osmotolerance, peroxidase, photochemistry, photosystem II, pot culture, potassium, proline, protein content, rivers, rooting, sewage, stomatal conductance, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, water use efficiency, wheat
- The presence of significant amount of heavy metals in rivers and canals due to mixing of untreated industrial effluents is a common phenomenon, especially in developing countries. The agricultural crops are influenced by the presence of various pollutants in the sewage, being applied for irrigation purpose. The effluents containing copper affect the growth and development of crop species, thereby, ought to be mitigated by foliar spray of osmoprotectants, e.g. proline. A pot culture experiment was conducted at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan during the crop season 2015–2016. The treatments consisted of (a) three wheat varieties (Punjab-96, MH-97, FSD-83), (b) two levels of copper (0, 400 µM) applied through rooting medium, and (c) two levels of proline (0, 80 mM) applied through foliar application. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that application of 400 µM copper caused a reduction in biomass accumulation, chlorophyll (‘a’ and ‘b’) contents, and eventually yield (100-grain weight). There were also significant decreases in gas exchange parameters (stomatal conductance, internal CO₂ concentration), photosynthetic rate, water-use-efficiency, and transpiration rate in response to copper stress. Metal toxicity caused the maximum reduction in productivity of PSII, electron transport rate, and photochemical quenching, while higher values of non-photochemical quenching were recorded in the wheat varieties. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase), as well as quantities of proline, protein and calcium contents were accelerated in response to copper stress. The uptake of calcium, magnesium, and potassium constituents by plants was reduced, while assimilation of calcium was increased in plants under copper stress. However, the occurrence of negative effects on these parameters due to copper stress was mitigated by foliar spray of proline at the rate of 80 mM solution. The exogenous application of proline at the rate of 80 mM resulted in the reduction of generation of reactive oxygen species and enhanced accumulation of proline and protein contents in wheat varieties under copper stress environment.