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Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses

Wilson, M. E., Holz, C. L., Kopec, A. K., Dau, J. J., Luyendyk, J. P., Soboll Hussey, G.
Equine veterinary journal 2019 v.51 no.1 pp. 102-107
Equid herpesvirus 1, acute course, cerebrospinal fluid, coagulation, endothelium, hemorrhage, horse diseases, horses, in vivo studies, infectious diseases, ischemia, mononuclear leukocytes, myeloencephalopathy, pathogenesis, respiratory tract diseases, spinal cord, thrombosis, vasculitis, viremia
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV‐1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV‐1. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV‐1 infection. METHODS: Horses were infected with EHV‐1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)‐associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)‐derived microvesicle (MV)‐associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. RESULTS: EHV‐1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV‐associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. MAIN LIMITATIONS: A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that EHV‐1 infection increases PBMC‐associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF‐dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses.