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Molecular identification of Allium ochotense and Allium microdictyon using multiplex-PCR based on single nucleotide polymorphisms

Kim, Yong-Bog, Ramekar, Rahul Vasudeo, Choi, Seong-Jin, Choi, Byoung-Gon, Kim, Se-Won, Moon, Youn-Ki, Noh, Hee-Sun, Lee, Ju-Kyong, Hong, Jin-Sung, Park, Nam-Il, Choi, Ik-Young, Choi, Seon-Kang, Park, Kyong-Cheul
Horticulture, environment and biotechnology 2018 v.59 no.6 pp. 865-873
Allium victorialis, DNA barcoding, breeding programs, chloroplasts, extinction, genes, habitats, intergenic DNA, internal transcribed spacers, leaves, molecular systematics, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, risk, single nucleotide polymorphism, traditional medicine, China, Korean Peninsula, Mongolia
Allium ochotense and Allium microdictyon are commonly known as ‘Mountain garlic’ and are popular, economically important species in many countries such as Korea, China, and Mongolia. Their leaves are used as culinary side dishes and in traditional medicines. In Korea, these two species are at risk of extinction due to damage to their natural habitat and thus, conservation and breeding programs are needed. However, their identification relies mostly on morphological data, which is limited and until recently, led to classifying these two species under A. victorialis. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of molecular identification was developed to distinguish A. ochotense from A. microdictyon that targets four barcoding regions: the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the maturase K gene (matK), the chloroplast psbA-trnH intergenic region, and the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in ITS and matK regions, and species-specific primers were designed based solely on the SNP at position 680 of the ITS region that could differentiate A. ochotense from A. microdictyon. Using these primers in amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, A. ochotense, and A. microdictyon could be simultaneously and efficiently distinguished. This study is the first to report a simple, rapid, and efficient method for discriminating A. ochotense and A. microdictyon, indicating the utility of species-specific markers in the development of conservation and breeding programs.