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High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method for Characterization and Quantitative Analysis of Ginkgolic Acids in Ginkgo biloba Plants, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements

Mei Wang, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Cristina Avonto, Amar G. Chittiboyina, Philip L. Wylie, Jon F. Parcher, Ikhlas A. Khan
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.50 pp. 12103-12111
Ginkgo biloba, derivatization, dietary supplements, esters, flavonols, formic acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ginkgolic acid, glycosides, glyphosate-trimesium, guidelines, hexane, high performance liquid chromatography, leaf extracts, liquid-liquid extraction, methanol, ozonolysis, polar compounds, quantitative analysis, siloxanes, ultra-performance liquid chromatography
A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid–liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.