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Variables of initial examination and clinical management associated with survival in small ruminants with obstructive urolithiasis
- Riedi, Anna‐Katharina, Nathues, Christina, Knubben‐Schweizer, Gabriela, Nuss, Karl, Meylan, Mireille
- Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 v.32 no.6 pp. 2105-2114
- blood serum, body condition, castration, clinical examination, colic, creatine kinase, creatinine, goats, image analysis, males, obesity, patients, pet ownership, prognosis, regression analysis, risk, sheep, survival rate, urine, urolithiasis
- BACKGROUND: Obstructive urolithiasis is a common disease associated with a guarded prognosis in small ruminants. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: The results of physical examination, laboratory analyses, and clinical management of male small ruminants presented to 2 referral clinics were investigated to identify variables significantly associated with disease outcome, so as to provide better recommendations to animal owners regarding the management of these patients. ANIMALS: Two‐hundred ten small ruminants (130 sheep and 80 goats) with confirmed diagnosis of obstructive urolithiasis. METHODS: Clinical findings (including diagnostic imaging) and laboratory results of the 210 animals were reviewed, and relevant information regarding clinical and laboratory variables recorded upon admission and clinical management was retrieved. The association of the different variables with nonsurvival was investigated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Only 39% of all patients considered for treatment and 52% of those undergoing tube cystostomy survived to be released from the clinic. Nonsurvival was strongly associated with a very poor clinical condition upon presentation, obesity, castration, and evidence of uroperitoneum. Among blood variables, abnormal PCV, severely increased serum creatinine concentrations, and increased activity of the creatine kinase were associated with increased risk of nonsurvival. Presence of signs of colic or macroscopic appearance of urine was not significantly associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The prognosis of obstructive urolithiasis was guarded with survival rates of 39% (overall) to 52% (after tube cystostomy). Intact young males with normal body condition presented early in the course of disease had the best chances of survival.