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Demographic risk factors for lymphoma in Australian dogs: 6201 cases

Bennett, Peter F., Taylor, Rosanne, Williamson, Peter
Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 v.32 no.6 pp. 2054-2060
breeds, castration, data collection, dogs, etiology, females, lymphoma, males, odds ratio, pets, risk factors, risk reduction, Australia
BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is common in the dog. Studies of population risk factors primarily have been derived from referral institution or insurance data. OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the host risk factors for lymphoma in a broad population of Australian dogs. ANIMALS: Data on 6201 client owned dogs were retrieved from a commercial veterinary laboratory, a general practice group and 2 referral hospitals. METHODS: Data collected included breed, sex, and neuter status. A reference population of 640 105 dogs was generated from the referral hospitals and from council registration data. The risk of lymphoma by sex and neuter status was calculated as odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: The study identified 30 breeds at increased risk of lymphoma, 15 that have not been reported previously, and 26 breeds at decreased risk, 18 that have not been reported previously. Males were over represented compared to females with an OR of 1.1 (95% CI, 1.1–1.2; P < .001). Neutered animals were at higher risk compared to intact animals with an OR of 3.2 (95% CI, 2.9–3.5) which was found in both males (OR, 2.8; 95% CI; 2.5–3.2) and females (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 3.5–5.1). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Breed, sex, and neuter status alter the risk of lymphoma in dogs. These 3 factors must be considered when evaluating lymphoma risk as potential markers of underlying differences in disease etiology. Comparison of breeds at increased and decreased risk could be advantageous when evaluating specific etiological factors.