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Conversion of canola meal into a high-protein feed additive via solid-state fungal incubation process
- Jason R. Croat, Mark Berhow, Bishnu Karki, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Willaim R. Gibbons
- Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2016 v.93 no.4 pp. 499-507
- Aureobasidium, Trichoderma reesei, canola meal, chemists, feed additives, fungi, glucosinolates, heat treatment, nutrient content, nutritive value, oils, oligosaccharides, protein content, solid state culture, starter cultures, water content
- The study goal was to determine the optimal fungal culture to reduce glucosinolates (GLS), fiber, and residual sugars while increasing the protein content and nutritional value of canola meal. Solid-state incubation conditions were used to enhance filamentous growth of the fungi. Flask trials were performed using 50 % moisture content hexane-extracted (HE) or cold-pressed (CP) canola meal with incubation for 168 h at 30 °C. Incubation on HE canola meal Trichoderma reesei (NRRL-3653) achieved the greatest increase in protein content (23 %), while having the lowest residual levels of sugar (8 % w/w) and GLS (0.4 μM/g). Incubation on CP canola meal Trichoderma reesei (NRRL-3653), A. pullulans (NRRL-58522), and A. pullulans (NRRL-Y-2311-1) resulted in the greatest improvement in protein content (22.9, 16.9 and 15.4 %, respectively), while reducing total GLS content from 60.6 to 1.0, 3.2 and 10.7 μM/g, respectively. HE and CP canola meal GLS levels were reduced to 65.5 and 50.7 % by thermal treatments while solid-state microbial conversion further reduced GLS up to 99 and 98 %, respectively. Fiber levels increased due to the concentration effect of removing oligosaccharides and GLS.