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Assessment of Ripening Degree of Avocado by Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Support Vector Machine

Islam, Monzurul, Wahid, Khan, Dinh, Anh
Journal of food quality 2018 v.2018
avocados, climacteric fruits, dielectric spectroscopy, environmental impact, ethylene production, postharvest storage, principal component analysis, quality control, ripening, support vector machines, vegetables
Avocado, a climacteric fruit, exerts high rate of respiration and ethylene production and thereby subject to ripening during storage. Therefore, its ripening is a significant factor to impart optimum quality in postharvest storage. To understand the dynamics of ripening and to assess the degree of ripening in the avocado, electrical sensing technique is utilized in this study. In particular, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is found to uncover the physiological and structural characteristics in plants and vegetables and to follow physiological progressions due to environmental impacts. In this work, we present an approach that will integrate EIS and machine learning technique that allows us to monitor the ripening degree of the avocado. It is evident from our study that the impedance absolute magnitude of the avocado gradually decreases as the ripening stages (firm, breaking, ripe, and overripe) proceed at a particular frequency. In addition, principal component analysis shows that impedance magnitude (two principal components combined explain 99.95% variation) has better discrimination capabilities for ripening degrees compared to impedance phase angle, impedance real part, and impedance imaginary part. Our classifier utilizes two principal component features over 100 EIS responses and demonstrates classification over firm, breaking, ripe, and overripe stages with an accuracy of 90%, precision of 93%, recall of 90%, f1-score of 90%, and auc of 88%. The study offers plant scientists a low cost and nondestructive approach to monitor postharvest ripening process for quality control during storage.