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Viscosity of liquid and semisolid materials: Establishing correlations between instrumental analyses and sensory characteristics

Conti‐Silva, Ana Carolina, Ichiba, Anderson Kintaro Takenobu, Silveira, Alana Lisbôa da, Albano, Kivia Mislaine, Nicoletti, Vânia Regina
Journal of texture studies 2018 v.49 no.6 pp. 569-577
cheeses, color, concentrated milk, cooking, cream, desserts, flavor, graphs, honey, liquids, meat, milk, rheometers, sensation, sensory evaluation, strawberries, texture, viscosity, yogurt, France
Considering the importance of texture for food products, we aimed to evaluate viscosity of different liquid and semisolid materials through instrumental analyses (rheometer and texture analyzer), as well sensory descriptive analysis, and establishing correlations between all these analyses. Eight materials were used: water, strawberry yogurt, condensed milk, honey, UHT cream, creamy dairy dessert, petit suisse strawberry flavor (a traditional French cheese from Normandy region, and sold as an infant product), and dulce de leche (obtained through cooking of a can of condensed milk, during 15 min under pressure, resulting in a brownish color product and more consistent than condensed milk). All materials were submitted to rheological analysis, analysis on texture analyzer, and descriptive sensory analysis. All techniques of measurement discriminated the texture of samples. The visual viscosity, defined as a sensory attribute evaluated by visual observation, was negatively correlated to apparent viscosity measured through rheological analysis with shear rate at 10 s⁻¹. Oral viscosity and body (both defined as sensory attributes evaluated by oral perception) were positively correlated with areas from graphs obtained in the texture analyzer, and with apparent viscosity measured through rheological analysis at shear rate of 10 s⁻¹, although positive strong correlation was also found between body and apparent viscosity at higher shear rates (50 and 100 s⁻¹). The strong correlations enable application of these instrumental tests as indicators of the sensory texture of liquid and semisolid materials. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Texture has a minor importance to liquid and semisolid materials in comparison to meat and crunchy products. However, the relevance of texture to these kinds of products has growing up recently. Therefore, measuring and understanding viscosity of liquid and semisolid materials, using different ways of evaluation, brings relevant information to the area. Moreover, establishing correlations between instrumental and sensory analyses may indicate which instrumental analysis and which analysis condition would be more adequate to correlate with sensory perception of texture, allowing a convergence for future studies and for discussion of results.